Because knowing where we have come from with respect to the evolution of vision is so important, this paper by John R. Paterson, Diego C. García-Bellido, Michael S. Y. Lee, Glenn A. Brock, James B. Jago and Gregory D. Edgecombe gets our nod for a notable paper. It does not hurt that I have a fascination with the evolution of vision as well. Its just unfortunate that our obsession, the retina is not preserved in the fossil record. Continue reading “Notable Paper: Acute vision in the giant Cambrian predator Anomalocaris and the origin of compound eyes”
This article by Josefin Snellman, Bhupesh Mehta, Norbert Babai, Theodore M Bartoletti, Wendy Akmentin, Adam Francis, Gary Matthews, Wallace Thoreson and David Zenisek examines the vesicular priming process at synaptic ribbons. Continue reading “Notable Paper: Acute destruction of the synaptic ribbon reveals a role for the ribbon in vesicle priming”
Hereditary retinal dystrophies (retinitis pigmentosa, Leber congenital amaurosis, cone-rod dystrophies, macular degeneration) are characterized by loss of visual function, sometimes starting during early childhood, other times in late adulthood. About 30% of these dystrophies are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion (RetNet), caused by gain-of-function mutant alleles which encode a malignant form of a normal protein. Continue reading “Notable Paper: Long-term RNA interference gene therapy in a dominant retinitis pigmentosa mouse model”
I’ve watched the development of the circadian rhythm research starting with Joe Takahashi‘s work discovering CLOCK in the mammalian SCN back in 1994. Since then there has been an explosion of circadian rhythm biology work including an I suppose, unsurprising amount of research in the retina proper.
This paper by Anamika Sengupta, Kenkichi Baba, Francesca Mazzoni, Nikita V. Pozdeyev, Enrica Strettoi, P. Michael Iuvone, and Gianluca Tosini describes the localization of type 1 melatonin receptors in the mouse retina that has interesting potential implications for additional circadian mechanisms in the retina.
This paper by Y Lin, BW Jones, A Liu, JF Tucker, K Rapp, L Luo, W Baehr, PS Bernstein, CB Watt, JH Yang, MV Shaw and RE Marc examines the neuronal sprouting or neuritogenesis components of retinal remodeling found in retinal degenerative disease and describes a control process for retinoid X receptors (RXRs) in neuritogenesis. Continue reading “Retinoid Receptors Trigger Neuritogenesis in Retinal Degenerations”
The inward rectifying K+ channels (IRKs) are common ion channels that encompass seven distinct subtypes, each a potential target for pathology or a potential actor in various insults to the nervous system, the retina included. IRKs in the retina are found in Müller glia, retinal pigment epithelium and on neurons in retina, so are fundamental to retinal physiology. However, their function and mechanisms of action have largely been unknown. Continue reading “Notable Paper: Structural basis of PIP2 activation of the classical inward rectifier K+ channel Kir2.2”
We here at Webvision have a certain fondness for insects and believe that our understanding of vision and visual pathways can benefit greatly from the study of insect visual systems. Our understanding of visual processing is actually pretty limited and simpler visual systems to study from eye to brain are found in insects compared to vertebrates.
I missed this paper in the chaos and runup to ARVO, but its conclusions are remarkably compelling. Imagine that you were blind for years, perhaps from birth and suddenly, you were able to see with perfect clarity. Would you be able to recognize items like a pyramid, a box or a sphere by sight when you only knew these objects previously by touch?
Efforts to explore chromosome 10q26, a major candidate region associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have proven difficult and controversial. This particular region of interest is two neighboring genes, ARMS2 and HTRA1. However, efforts in trying to explore the functional involvement of either HTRA1 or ARMS2 in AMD have proven to be difficult and have often yielded conflicting results.
This paper is the result of a collaborative effort between Bryan William Jones, Mineo Kondo and Hiroko Terasaki, Carl Watt, Kevin Rapp, James Anderson, Yanhua Lin, Maggie Shaw, Jia-Hui Yang and Robert Marc.
This work presents a substantial advance in models of Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), an set of inherited blinding diseases characterized by progressive loss of retinal photoreceptors. Continue reading “Notable Paper: Retinal Remodeling in the Tg P347L Rabbit, a Large-Eye Model of Retinal Degeneration”
This truly groundbreaking paper by M Mehdi Doroudchi, Kenneth P Greenberg, Jianwen Liu, Kimberly A Silka, Edward S Boyden, Jennifer A Lockridge, A Cyrus Arman, Ramesh Janani, Shannon E Boye, Sanford L Boye, Gabriel M Gordon, Benjamin C Matteo, Alapakkam P Sampath, William W Hauswirth and Alan Horsager demonstrates that channelrhodopsin-2, a cation channel from algae than can be gated/activated by light can restore both physiological and behavioral visual responses in mice with retinal degenerative disease.
Photoreceptors are specialized cells that elaborate a cilium which becomes the inner and outer segments of the photoreceptor that house photopigments (a beautiful TEM image of a photoreceptor cilium and its inner/outer segment can be seen here)…. Continue reading “Notable Paper: UNC119 is Required for G Protein Trafficking in Sensory Neurons”